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Christianity in the Late Middle Ages-Early Renaissance - Part 7 of 14 - Politics, Heresy, the Franciscans, and the Difficulties of a Return to Italy
Dr. John Rao
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  Before weakening, the Holy Roman Emperors tried one last attempt to dominate the Church. Dr. Rao speaks of the allies which were found in Nominalist, heretical, and rebellious Church circles, and the utilization of the talents of William of Ockham, Marsilius of Padua, and the Spiritual Franciscans. A troubled Avignon Papacy, led by Popes such as John XXII, found it necessary constantly to call upon military force and ecclesiastical sanctions to defend themselves. This made the papacy look like more of a secular than a spiritual force. Taken from: Christianity in the Late Middle Ages-Early Renaissance - 1996 VonHildebrand Institute



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